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Addictions, Alcohol, & Testimonials
Alcohol Dependency and Depression in 42 year old Male
Compulsive Sexual Behavior
Alcoholism & PTSD

Technical Papers & Substance Abuse

Drug addiction is often considered a psychiatric condition of the brain. Contemporary neuroscience research reveals addiction is based on the ability of drugs to mimic the brain's neurotransmitters. As a result, the brain is fooled into responding how it would naturally. Moreover, most drugs act directly on the pleasure centres causing the person to be more likely to become addicted (The Secret Life of The Brain, Richard Restack, MD 2001. p 82). The basis of addiction is so powerful that 80% of drug treatment programs participants relapse within 6 months. "Currently, the best approach is bolstering the action of the frontal lobes as done with biofeedback" (The Secret Life of The Brain, Richard Restack, MD 2001. pp 88-89).

Case Histories & Testimonials
Alcohol Dependency and Depression in 42 year old Male
Compulsive Sexual Behavior
Alcoholism & PTSD

Technical Papers & Abstracts on Addictive Behaviour

Bailer, U. F., Frank, G. K., Henry, S. E., Price, J. C., & et al. (Sept. 2005). The treatment of addictive disorders by brain wave biofeedback: a review and suggestions for future research. Altered Brain Serotonin 5-HT Receptor Binding After Recovery From Anorexia Nervosa Measured by PET and Carbonyl C WAY-100635. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 62:1032-1041.

deBeus, Roger. Quantitative Electroencephalography-Guided Verses Scott/Peniston Neurofeedback With Substance Use Disorder Outpatients: A Pilot Study. Biofeedback. 35(4): 146-151.

Duffy, F. H. (Jan 2000). The state of EEG biofeedback therapy (EEG operant conditioning) in 2000: an editor's opinion. Clinical Electroencephalography. 31(1): V-VII.

Fahrion, S. L., Walters, E. D., Coyne, L., & Allen, T. (June 1992). Alterations in EEG amplitude, personality factors, and brain electrical mapping after alpha-theta brainwave training: a controlled case study of an alcoholic in recovery. Alcoholism, Clinical And Experimental Research, 16 (3), 547-552.

Fateme Dehghani-Arani, Reza Rostami, and Hosein Nadali. (April 20, 2013). Neurofeedback Training for Opiate Addiction: Improvement of Mental Health and Craving. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 38:133-141.

Gunkelman, J., & Cripe, C. (2008). Clinical Outcomes in Addiction: A Neurofeedback Case Series. Biofeedback, 36(4), 152-156.

Kaiser, D. A., Othmer, S., & Scott, W. (Jan 23, 1999). Effect of Neurofeedback on Chemical Dependency Treatment. Presented at AAAS Conference in Anaheim, CA.

Kulkosky, P. J. (1997). Experiments on Brainwave Therapy for Alcoholism. 1997 SSNR Annual Meeting Abstracts. Retrieved from

Kulkosky, P. J. (June 1989). Alpha-theta brainwave training & beta-endorphin levels in alcoholics. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 14 (2), 83-88.

Kumano, H., Horie, H., Shidara, T., Kuboki, T., Suematsu, H., & Yasushi, M. (1996). Treatment of a depressive disorder patient with EEG-driven photic stimulation. Biofeedback and Self -Regulation, 21(4), 323-334.

Native Americans, Neurofeedback, and Substance Abuse Theory." Three Year Outcome of Alpha/theta Neurofeedback Training in the Treatment of Problem Drinking among Dine" (Navajo) People. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(3), Fall-Winter.

Peniston, E. G., & Kulkosky, P. J. (1989). Alpha-theta brainwave training and beta-endorphin levels in alcoholics. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 13(2), 271-279.

Peniston, E. G., & Kulkosky, P. J. (1990). Alcoholic personality and alpha-theta brainwave training. Medical Psychotherapy, 3, 37-55.

Peniston, E. G., Marrinan, D. A., Deming, W. A., & Kulkosky, P. J. (1993). EEG alpha-theta brainwave synchronization in Vietnam theatre veterans with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse. Advances in Medical Psychotherapy, 6, 37-50.

Raymond, J., Varney, C., Parkinson, L. A., & Gruzelier, J. H. (May 2005). The effects of alpha/theta neurofeedback on personality and mood. Cognitive Brain Research, 23(2-3), 287-292. Retrieved from Science Direct.

Richard, A. J., Montoya, I. D., Nelson, R., & Spence, R. T. Effectiveness of Adjunct Therapies in Crack Cocaine Treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 12(6), 401-413, 1995.

Saxby, E., & Peniston, E. G. (1995). Alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training: an effective treatment for male and female alcoholics with depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51 (5), 685-693.

Schneider, F., Elbert, T., Heimann, H., Welker, A., Stetter, F., Mattes, R., et al. (1993). Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in psychiatric patients: Alcohol dependency. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 18(1), 23-32.

Scott, W, & Kaiser, DA. Presented at 1998 SSNR Conference, Austin TX.

Sharp, C., Hurford, D.P., Allison, J., Sparks, R., & Cameron, B.P. (1997). Facilitation of internal locus of control in adolescent alcoholics through a brief biofeedback-assisted autogenic relaxation training procedure. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 14(1), 55-60.

Sokhadze, Tato M., Cannon, Rex L., Trudeau, David L. (January 24, 2008). EEG Biofeedback as a Treatment for Substance Use Disorders: Review, Rating of Efficacy, and Recommendations for Further Research. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. 33:1-28.

Taub, E., Steiner, S.S., Weingarten, E., & Walton, K.G. (1994). Effectiveness of broad spectrum approaches to relapse prevention in severe alcoholism: A long term, randomized controlled trial of transcendental meditation, EMG biofeedback, and electronic neurotherapy. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 11(1/2), 187-220.

The state of EEG biofeedback therapy (EEG operant conditioning) in 2000: an editor's opinion.

Trudeau, D. L. (Jan 2000). Clinical Electroencephalography. 31(1):13-22. Review.

Waldkoetter, R.O., & Sanders, G.O. (1997). Auditory brainwave stimulation in treating alcoholic depression. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84(1), 226.


Current Medical Findings

Peniston & Kulkosky (1989) and Saxby & Peniston (1995) provide evidence for a reduction in depression and reported sustained prevention of relapse with a 21 month follow-up who had completed the training (Saxby & Peniston, 1995). 60% of alcohol dependent males had not relapsed 4 months post self-regulation training of slow cortical potentials (Schneider et al., 1993). A higher abstinence in addition to a decreased Beck Depression Inventory psychological scores occured when individuals receive biofeedback training.